As the name suggests, microwave is a small electronic wave having a very short wavelength, which can be measured in centimeters. Generally, the energy carried by a wave is determined by its length. The longer waves carry a greater amount of heat than shorter waves. This simple principle is the fundamental theory used in a microwave oven for heating our food. According to the definition of microwave, it is a radio wave with a wavelength varying from one millimeter to one metro. Moreover, its frequency varies from 300 MHz to 300GHz.

Microwave History

James Clerk Maxwell, a famous scientist, proved the existence of radio waves, through his equations, in the year 1864. However, a radio wave has been defined at an advanced level by Heinrich Hertz. He showed the existence of radio waves through his spark gap radio transmitter device. In 1894, the radio pioneer, Indian scientist, Jagadish Chandra Bose, illustrated radio control using millimetre wavelengths. After this revolutionary experiment, advanced research on microwave came into the general picture.

Microwave Uses

Often, Microwaves are used for transmitting data from one place to another. As they are capable of penetrating through haze, clouds, snow, rain, and even smoke, they are considered as good energy transmitters. For remote sensing, shorter microwaves are used. Among their various uses, another important use of microwaves is in weather forecasting. Microwave is used for Doppler radar, which is the primary tool used for weather forecasting. Apart from these uses, a microwave also serves as a data transmitting medium for telephonic and internet communication. Microwave and Radar Technology

The full form of Radar is - Radio Detection and Ranging. It had mainly been developed to detect objects or determine the position of a certain object. This is achieved through a simple method. The origin or position of the object is determined through incoming "echoes"- sound waves that are reflected back. When a microwave clashes with the ‘echoes’, the position, origin and other details of the object can easily be calculated.

Radar efficiently senses electromagnetic waves, the reflections of an active transmission. Radar is considered as the most advanced remote sensing device. The whole mechanism of this device depends upon microwaves. Hence, without microwaves, Radar would find nothing to sense.

Microwaves do not take part in the ionization process, and are often regarded as the example of a non-ionized radiation. In some cases, microwaves have significant adverse, biological effects. Long term exposure to microwaves has carcinogenic effects on the human beings. Hence, it is always a risk to stay in an area or a system where microwave intensity exposure is high. It can create serious damages, like heating or burning, to any organic matter. Such injuries are medically termed as dielectric heating. High exposure to microwaves is hazardous for the eyes as well.
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